Following are two sign boards (of two shops) with two opposite concepts of translation.
In the above sign, the name of the shop is written in English. But then, many of us cannot read English. So, to the left, the name is also written in Urdu. There is no translation involved here. ‘New Modern Photocopy Center’ is simply reproduced phonetically in Urdu script.
The second image is the opposite of this.
The name of the shop is in Arabic and written in Arabic at the top of the board. Urdu script and Arabic script are similar so every one can read the sign. But what about those who cannot read Urdu/Arabic. Well, the name is reproduced in English, ‘Al-Khayatul-Akbar’. No translation, only phonetic representation.
I hope I am successful in conveying whatever I am trying to convey here.